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Philosophical Issues in Quantum Theory (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
A Conversation with Noretta Koertge; F. Stadler, I. Review Essay. Carnap's Construction of the World. Austrian Philosophy Past and Present. Lehrer, J.
The Physics of Symbols: Bridging the Epistemic Cut
Gomes ; J. Galvez, et al. A House Built on Sand. Kieseppa ; N. See PUTNAM, ; GREENE, Trying to save the phenomena the empirical measurements , different researchers introduced Ptolemaic epicycles in constructing various alternatives to the quantum mechanical-world, but working within the unicorn-world their approaches are wrong. We know from the history of human thinking that human imagination has played a powerful role in creating ardent arguments for fanciful Ptolemaic epicycles.
Both Einstein et. The consequence of these experiments is that the system of those two particles has a non-locality property. I strongly emphasize here that the space of this EW is the whole of cosmic space! In EW1, the property of the non-locality of those two particles does not exist. Again, I strongly underline that the space of this EW2 is also the whole of cosmic space! The difference between two EDWs is given not by their spatio-temporal frameworks that is the same with different metrics for all EDWs except the mind-EW but by their entities and the interactions among them.
It is completely wrong to assign the property of non-locality to the relation between objects that belong to EW1.
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See Friedman, , pp. The movement of an electron corresponds to the movement of the wave. In the EW1, action upon one electron does not act simultaneously on the other electron, because in any EW there is no signal that passes the speed of light. But acting on an electron, we act on the corresponding waves, even if we do not observe this process. The idea of the hyperverse is completely different to these notions from theoretical physics. In the hyperverse, there are always waves and particles.
Wave and particle are in EDWs. Our observation depends on our tool of observation from that moment. Within the unicorn-world, we could not understand why we observe interference on a screen if we fire electrons. However, when one slit is closed, the screen measures only the electrons but not the wave. There is only a correspondence between the wave and the electron.
When the new detector is switched off the photons produce interference patterns on a photographic screen. When the new detector is switched on, it indicates which path each photon travels. Again, within the unicorn- world, we can find many anomalies! It is quite natural to consider that the wave and the particle cannot both be at the same place at the same time. Depending on our conditions of measurement, we can observe either the wave or the particle that exists in the EDWs before our observations take place. Deutsch believes that single-particle interference experiments illustrate that the multiverse i.
In what sense? Then each photon one tangible and one shadow from parallel universes bounces off the next ordinary mirror and finally both photons simultaneously reach the semi-silvered mirror. I want to emphasize that we have to avoid confusing EDWs with parallel universes. For Deutsch, these parallel universes exist at the same time in the unicorn-world. As we saw above, we Deutsch considers that all the other micro-particles electrons, neutrons, etc. The initiator of decoherence is Zeh followed by Joos, Zurek, etc.
So there is a quantum uncertainty regarding the spin of that particle. Tegmark and Wheeler, , p. According to Tegmark and Wheeler, quantum uncertainty is different from the uncertainty of classical probability, for instance a coin toss. There are no peaks for the interference process. At this moment, the person cannot perceive this superposition because the interference pattern accomplishes decoherence.
For example, the book that I read now is struck by photons and air molecules. And this situation has been quite normal because of the unicorn-world framework. Because the wave and the particle belong to EDWs, there is no superposition of them and, consequently, no superposition of various states of that particle. From my perspective, we do not have any superposition of two states of a particle.
Relativity versus quantum mechanics: the battle for the universe
Nevertheless, there is a superposition of two waves. As we saw at point 1 , these two waves belong to the EW2. The particle that corresponds to the wave before the two-slit screen enters only through one slit, but not both. There is no interference of two particles, since we have only one particle. Based on two of his thought-experiments, Dyson considers that the distinction between classical that include microparticles and quantum waves notions is reflected by the distinction between past and future Dyson, , p. The past cannot be described using quantum-mechanical notions but only classical terms.
This picture of the observer interrupting the course of natural events is unnecessary and misleading. What really happens is that the quantum-mechanical description of an event ceases to be meaningful as the observer changes the point of reference from before the event to after it. We do not need a human observer to make quantum mechanics work.
All we need is a point of reference, to separate past from future, to separate what has happened from what may happen, to separate facts from probabilities p. Dyson introduces time as a single solution to avoid the ontological role of the observer. However, he has this solution because he works within the unicorn-world. I want to stress again that there can be confusion between the EDWs and many-worlds or multiverse or parallel universes from the field of quantum mechanics. The many-worlds interpretation was created by Everett as an alternative to the collapse of the wave function into a particle during the measurement Copenhagen interpretation.
There are two parts of the total wave function of person plus the particle that work completely independently in two parallel worlds.
I emphasize again that many-worlds interpretation and EDWs perspective are completely different. From an EDWs perspective, because the wave and the particle belong to EDWs, there is no superposition of various states for a particle. The parallel universes ontologically exist in the unicorn-world simultaneously, while EDWs epistemologically exist in the hyperverse. Tegmark, p.
Decoherence answers both questions. But as we saw above, decoherence is a false notion within the unicorn-world. The scientists needed such decoherence only because of the unicorn-world. They consider that the superpositions are available only for insolated systems. When such systems DAVIES dedicates one chapter in his book to the multiverse alternative in quantum mechanics. Working within the unicorn-world paradigm, scientists and philosophers have obviously been forced to create such weird notions.